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Courseware can be bought as a fully developed package from a software company, but the program provided this way may not suit the particular needs of the individual class or curriculum. A courseware template may be purchased, which provides a general format for tests and drill instruction, with the individual particulars to be inserted by the individual school system or teacher. The disadvantage to this system is that instruction tends to be boring and repetitive, with tests and questions following the same pattern for every course.

Software can be developed in-house, that is, a school, course, or teacher could provide the courseware exactly tailored to its own needs, but this is expensive, time-consuming, and may require more programming expertise than is available. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Computer-assisted instruction. Article Media. Info Print Cite.

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Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History. Facts Matter. In the third session, the participants performed a simulation of a nutritional study adopting this new software for about 30 minutes.

At the end of each session, the volunteers had approximately 10 minutes to complete a questionnaire, which had been previously explained, to ensure that each question was clearly understood by the participants. This questionnaire was designed by team of University educators to evaluate different aspects of the CAI: functionality, usability, the application programming interface and nutritional assessment tools; and to compare this software with similar applications i.

The questionnaires were composed of semi-structured and unstructured questions, where a number of issues were covered including: Knowledge and attitudes towards clinical assessment tools. Functionality and usability of the CAI developed. Pros and cons of the CAI in relation to other nutritional software. Usefulness of the CAI to improve skills nutritional status assessment. Future potential directions.

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The Data Collection and the Qualitative data analysis was conducted following the guidelines of Ryan et al. Questionnaires of the second phase were composed of semi-structured and unstructured questions. Subsequently, answers were coded and analysed to find trends about the usability, functionality and effectiveness of the software. Afterwards, answers were examined to obtain emerging patterns. At the end of the last session, the respondents were asked to assess the CAI with a number from 1 very bad to 10 excellent.

In this research, we have developed a computer assisted instruction within a comprehensive nutritional assessment software UNyDIET in order to help students and health professionals to learn and train their confidence in handling clinical assessment instruments.

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The first phase of the assessment implied a face to face interview with health professionals, who appreciated the UNyDIET software in general and the CAI in particular, due to userfriendly interface and its usefulness and practicality, however they considered it was necessary to insert new clinical assessment tools and make changes on the screen format, in the programming and in writing.

In this group, From these statements, it is clear that the participants considered that the new software contained a great number of assessment tools and photographs, which can help the health professionals in carrying out a clinical history and in establishing a patient diagnosis. The participants also commented the pros and cons of this CAI in relation to other nutrition software, such as Nutriciun. The pros could be classified into three categories Table 4 : easy handling, comprehensive and content, of which the last one was the most frequently cited and the most appreciated.

The cons of CAI were focused on two aspects of the software functionality Table 5 : the lack of a search engine and the inability to extrapolate data to statistical software. Most of the participants felt that the developed application was useful and facilitated the carrying out of diagnoses: Regarding nutritional assessments tools Fig 8 and Table 7 , Among respondents who would apply these tools, According to participants, the overall assessment of the CAI on a scale ranging from 1 lowest or poorest to 10 highest or best is 8.

Project on the Effect of Computer Aided Instruction

Practice, as a key component of learning and improvement of skills, is fundamental in the area of health sciences. In recent years, CAIs have been developed to improve the health status assessment skills of specialists and have been used successfully in both theory and practice settings [ 14 ].


Computer assisted medical education offers a feasible and practical method of learning [ ], and for this reason students and health professionals use these applications to improve their skills in the management of people with health problems [ ]. CAI modules can simulate difficult situations providing a safe and controlled learning environment to put the skills of students in practice, while avoiding unwanted effects in a real patient [ ].

Clinical students sometimes aren't trained to confidently recognize, prevent and manage nutritional issues of their own patients. This is due to the fact that the skills developed within the curriculum of the junior doctors are insufficient for working within the nutritional field [ ].

Therefore, the CAIs could be used to instruct healthcare professionals in the nutritional assessment, since its effectiveness for training clinical professionals has been shown on other subjects [ ]. The CAI, included in the nutritional program UNYDIET, provides a step-by-step guide that leads students and health professionals during the patient's nutritional assessment, helping them to perform more accurate examinations and make better decisions in treating patients.

Most of the CAIs, used in nutritional learning, have been created to improve communication and counseling methods of the dietetic students [ 12 ] or to enhance experience of dietitians in nutrition care planning [ 16 ]. UNyDIET, unlike them, also helps clinical students in identifying diseases thanks to the inclusion of screening tools, graphics, photographs and questionnaires inside the application [ 19 ].

UNyDIET has integrated within a single application, the nutrition information about the patient, the risk factors or disease-related biomarkers genetic or phenotypic and medical knowledge [ , , ]. All this will help healthcare professionals and students in disease recognition, in clinical reasoning and in prescribing treatments. In the first phase of this research, the CAI development was given to health professionals from different clinical departments of the University of Navarra.

Computer Aided Instruction

After collecting the information of these nutrition experts, the authors improved it including new clinical assessment tools and modifying the presentation of questions and the application programming interface. After working with the CAI, they were able to recognize, more quickly, techniques and procedures required to accomplish a personalized nutritional assessment. However, the participants commented that the disadvantage that this CAI had, when compared to other dietotherapeutical sofware [ ], was the lack of a module for processing statistical data. The paucity of knowledge regarding how to integrate a CAI efficiently into clinical education causes its effectiveness to be uncertain [ ], so it would be interesting that new researches were posed inside clinical settings, so the usefulness of these applications as learning tools can be established.

The Computer Assisted Instruction developed offers a feasible and practical method to teach and learn about the health status assessment. Students and health professionals using this application can improve their skills in managing patients at risk of suffering health problems. The CAI included in the UNYDIET software is an electronic program, which guides the users in the data collection, analysis and interpretation, and in the identification, assessing and treatment of nutritional risks. Complete medical records and new instruments of identification of diseases are included to allow the user to know and work with new tools.

Therefore, UNyDIET includes many of the categories that specialist consider important to manage a global nutritional assessment. Comparing it to other similar ones, you can see that this software helps the user in performing an integral nutritional assessment bearing in mind both genotypic and phenotypic aspects. The authors thank the healthcare professionals and students of the University of Navarra for their generous help during the pre-tested of the Computer Assisted Instruction.

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Application of artificial intelligence in computer aided instruction - IEEE Conference Publication

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Computer assisted instruction CAI is an effective tool for evaluating and training students and professionals. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Methods Design The application has been designed using the programming language Java Swing, which is a cross-platform framework. Download: PPT. Fig 1. The information flow of the Computer Assisted Instruction. Fig 2. A screenshot of a section of the module of Medical History. Fig 3. Diagram of the operational processes of the Computer Assisted Instruction.

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Medical History The medical history or anamnesis is the factual information obtained by a physician during the exploration of a patient [ ]. Diagnoses Screening methods, clinical practice guidelines and risk prediction equations are used to identify or calculate the risk of developing diseases such as malnutrition [ ], eating disorders [ ], cardiovascular disease [ ] or metabolic syndrome [ ]. Fig 4. A screenshot of a risk chart of the Cardiovascular Risk section. Quality of Life Self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires can be used to measure cross-sectional differences in quality of life among patients at a point in time or longitudinal changes in the quality of life within patients during a period of time [ ].

Ethical considerations Before starting this research, the participants were explained the purpose of the study and how the questionnaire information was going to be used. Procedure The assessment of the CAI carried out in two phases. Fig 5.