To explore additional styles, check out the Other Citation Styles page.
EasyBib Guide to Citing and Writing in APA Format
However, as you progress through your academic career, you may find more flexibility in choosing a style that works for you. It's always best to check with your instructor and colleagues as to what style is appropriate. If you have flexibility, use the guide below to help you decide.
MLA style uses parenthetical in-text citations and a "Works Cited" list at the end of a paper to link sources. APA style uses parenthetical in-text citations and a "References" list at the end of the paper to link sources. Citation styles dictate more than just in-text citation and reference list formatting.
They also have rules for how to structure your paper and, in some cases, the cover sheet for your paper. Don't worry, each citation style has its own manual to help you figure out exactly how it all works. To find more information on specific citation styles and their corresponding style guide, check out the pages linked in the table.
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Evaluating Information Learn how to choose the best and most reliable information that meets your research needs. Course Reserves Library materials reserved for your classes. When multiple sources provide the same information about historic events, you may provide a summary of these events without a reference.
However, you found the information in just one source, be sure to cite it. When presenting ideas or research results that are your own, just state that they are yours.
However, if you create a graph or chart out of information you gathered from another source, you must cite the source from which you extracted the data. If you have already cited the ideas earlier in your paper that you are summarizing in your conclusion, you do not need to cite them again. However, if you are bringing in new ideas, be sure to cite them.
In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Information qualifies as common knowledge when it can be found in a significant number of sources and is not considered to be controversial. If you have doubts about whether something is common knowledge, ask your professor or another expert in the discipline. Needs a Citation: Davidson College was established in by Presbyterians who bought the land primarily for its rural location, far from the immoral enticements of cities.
For more information about when you don't need to cite, see:. When to Cite When should you cite? You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page. Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines. If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c For example: Allen a, b.
If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person:. If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mail , you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated. Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.
If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name:. For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation:.
Manage your references
Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more! It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you have more than one entry by the same author, they should be further ordered by increasing publication date more recent papers last.
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- Using In-text Citation!
If you have multiple sources from a single author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c You should include enough information that your readers will be able to find these sources on their own. The exact format is not critical, but consistency and completeness is. Reference lists are generally reverse-indented--this just helps the reader to find references to specific authors that much faster.