Resilience Of Resilience Across A Lifespan

For children this is important for their health and wellbeing as it helps children to have a strong sense of their cultural history and allows then to form positive cultural identities. This can give them a sense of belonging and build their self-esteem and resilience, this reduces the chances of children experiencing anxiety, depression, and isolation.

One other protective factor that also plays an important role in supporting the resilience of child development is the concrete support in times of need. For families to be able to thrive it is essential that they must have the basic economic needs such as; food, shelter, clothing, and health care. Not only is it important for the parents to have the basic need, but it is critically more important for children to have these.


In times of crisis such as; family encounters with mental illness, domestic violence, or substance abuse and other circumstances, families need concrete support systems in place to prevent the inadvertent neglect that can sometimes happen when parents are incapable to provide for their children. Parental resilience is about finding different ways to solve problems, knowing how and when to ask for help if needed, forming, and maintaining trusting relationship, especially with children. Good knowledge of parenting and child development is a role that protective factors play in the support of resilience in child development, when parents provide affection, safe opportunities that can promote independence and self-esteem, polite and civilised communication and listening and rules and expectations that are consistently applied, children able to develop and grow in a healthy environment.

Effective parenting helps motivate children to succeed in school and life, it can also encourage children to become more inquisitive about the world around them. Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student. Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. We will occasionally send you account related emails. Want us to write one just for you?

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New Tomb Raider Essay. Globalization Theory Essay. This involved high levels of warmth and affection and high levels of control, including physical discipline. This varies from the standard accounts of optimal parenting behaviour by including physical discipline. However, it is possible that in some higher-risk environments, such as those facing African-American children in the United States, a different approach to parenting is more adaptive.

In particular, given the higher levels of environmental risks, there may be benefits in higher levels of monitoring and discipline of children to ensure their safety. Single parenthood poses risks for parental wellbeing and children's adjustment. Children of sole parents, on average, have poorer records of academic achievement, display higher rates of psychological distress and have an increased likelihood of non-marital childbearing than their peers from two-parent families. In addition, sole mothers have poorer mental health than do their partnered peers, which affects their capacity to parent their children effectively and thus has a knock-on effect on their children's development.

Three primary explanations have been advanced to explain these differences. The first theory emphasises the role of economic deprivation. Substantial economic differences have been demonstrated between single-parent and two-parent families. One study has shown that these differences account for approximately one half of the variation in child development outcomes between single-mother and two-parent families McLanahan and Sandefur A second theory emphasises the importance of two parents for socialisation of children. There are clear advantages in having two parents to carry out important parenting functions such as supervision and monitoring of children.

Children are also hypothesised to benefit from the presence of a male role model in two-parent families. A third theory emphasises the role of stress. Parenting children without assistance from a partner is more stressful than when another adult is there to share the work. In addition, changes to family arrangements which often precede lone parenthood including separation, divorce and bereavement involve considerable stress, especially where separation involves a degree of conflict between the separating parents. This stress reduces the capacity of the lone parent to parent effectively.

Changes in family structure also often involve changes in the children's place of residence and school, which are postulated to have a cumulative negative impact on children. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the role non-resident fathers play in their children's lives. Non-resident fathers who engage in authoritative parenting and provide economic support for their children can make important contributions to their children's lives.

Thus if separating parents can successfully negotiate an arrangement whereby the father remains an active participant in the lives of the children, the father's involvement may serve as a protective factor for the children. If this protective function is to be realised, it is important that a good relationship is maintained between the parents.

Conflict between separated parents has adverse effects on children, which can undermine the positive contribution made by non-resident fathers. In cases of serious or prolonged conflict, the adverse effects on the children can be such that the children would be better off not seeing the father at all than continuing to see him in a situation of ongoing serious conflict.

Thus both parents need to work to minimise conflict and co-operate effectively on decisions about the children.

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The protective influence of non-resident father involvement is likely to arise from a range of sources. Financial support provided by the father for the child will have an obvious direct benefit.

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  6. If the father engages in authoritative parenting, this too will have a direct impact on the child. The father may also make a more indirect contribution to the wellbeing of the child, by assisting the mother in sharing the burden of caring for the child and providing other forms of support.

    This is likely to have positive effects on the mother's mental health, with flow-on effects for the child.

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    Family resilience

    Finally, children also benefit from having contact with their biological father, in terms of their development of self. Although the latter role cannot be filled by anyone other than the biological father, other functions can be performed by other male figures. Thus the attention of researchers has been increasingly directed towards the role of "social fathers" - male figures who act like a father to the child. There is empirical evidence that social fathers can have a positive influence on children's development, although it appears that this may vary depending on who the father figure is.

    Jayakody and Kalil reported that male relatives e. This appeared to come about through an indirect impact on the mother's mental health. On the other hand, where the father figure was the mother's romantic partner, children had lower levels of emotional adjustment.

    Other evidence also supports the view that where the new partner of a mother attempts to play a strong role in parenting step-children, this can lead to problems of adjustment in the children. Teenage childbearing has been associated with an array of negative outcomes for the teenage mother and her child. Teenage pregnancy is likely to lead to curtailment of schooling and hence to lower rates of school achievement. It is also associated with depression and psychological distress. Depression among teenage mothers is associated with lack of employment and rapid-repeat childbearing.

    Teenage mothers also have fewer parenting skills. For example, they are less sensitive and responsive to their children and are more likely to use punitive discipline and display more physically intrusive behaviour. This leads to higher rates of adjustment problems among children. It is unclear how much these effects derive from the fact of teenage childbirth itself and how much they are a result of selection effects.

    Some studies have shown that when pre-pregnancy measures of academic ability, behaviour and family circumstances are taken into account, the academic differences between teenage parents and their non-parenting peers disappear. In other words, young girls from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to have limited prospects irrespective of whether they have a child. Multi-generational co-residence has long been thought to help young single mothers to navigate the challenges of early parenting. Generally, most teenage mothers live with their own mothers, at least for the first few years after giving birth.

    Multi-generational living arrangements are more likely when the mother is younger, is unmarried, has fewer children and has few economic resources of her own, and when the grandmother has provided support through the young mother's pregnancy. Multi-generational co-residence has been found to have both positive and negative effects on teenage mothers. On the credit side of the ledger, such arrangements can benefit adolescent mothers' socio-economic outcomes, especially where grandmothers assist the young mothers to acquire more education.

    Furstenberg et al. The greater availability of child care and support for the young mother in multi-generational households may explain much of this positive effect.

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    On the other hand, there is also evidence that multi-generational living arrangements can have a negative effect on young mothers' parenting competence. Negative effects have also been reported on young mothers' mental health.